Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia is a country in East Asia, which lies on the equator between two continents, Asia and Australia and two oceans, the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The country is also known as the Archipelago (Reuters Islands), consisting of 17,508 evergreen islands like emeralds on the equator, which makes it the largest archipelago in the world.
There are three types of climate seasons in Indonesia, namely Climatic Season (monsoon), this type of climate is strongly influenced by seasonal wind changes every certain period. Usually a change in the monsoon period is 6 months. Climate season consists of two types, namely the southwest monsoon (West Monsoon) and northeast monsoon (Monsoon tumur). West monsoon winds blowing around October to April wet season so as to bring rain / wet. East monsoon winds blowing around the month of April to October of that nature that result in dry regions of Indonesia have droughts / dry, the tropica climate (hot climate), region located around the equator will automatically experience a tropical climate that is hot and only has two seasons, dry season and rainy season. Generally the southeast Asian region has a tropical climate, while countries in Europe and North America experienced a subtropical climate. The Tropical Climate is hot and Marine Climate, which has resulted in many marine areas evaporation of sea water into the air is humid and high rainfalls.
Indonesia includes about 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which remain uninhabited, spread around the equator, giving the tropical weather. The most populous island of Indonesia is Java, which is home to more than half (65%) of the Indonesian population. Indonesia consists of five large islands, namely: Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi which is called as Lesser Sunda Islands West, Irian Jaya (Western New Guinea) and a series of small islands is also referred to as the Lesser Sunda Island East, forming the Indonesian archipelago.
Indonesia also has more than 400 volcanoes and 130 of them are active volcanoes and dozens of active faults in the region. Most of the volcanoes are located on the ocean floor and not visible from the surface of the sea. Indonesia is the meeting place of two series of active volcanoes (Ring of Fire).
Distribution of Flora in Indonesia has a wide range of plant species. Climate has a huge influence, especially precipitation and air temperature. Effect of temperature on plant habitats in Indonesia has been known to Junghuhn classification, a German botanist who divides plants by altitude. High rainfall in the tropics resulting proliferation of various types of plants. Therefore, the area known as the tropical forest shrub that not only stores a variety of potential natural resources, but also acts as the lungs of the world.
Distribution of fauna in Indonesia is related to the geological history of the Indonesian Islands. According to Alfred Russel Wallace, there are differences in the distribution of animals in Indonesia. Classification of the distribution of fauna in Indonesia known as the Wallace line classification. According to this classification Indonesia has two animal distribution, namely, in the western part of the region with the type of animals that are from the continent of Asia; the eastern part of the region has that of Australia’s animal species. However, the classification is further divided into three types of Wallace fauna, namely: Asiatis, Asiatis-Australis and Australis.
Indonesia is rich in natural resources, from agriculture, forestry, marine and fisheries, animal husbandry, plantation and mining and energy.
With a population of 254 million people in 2014, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world, consisting of over 300 ethnic groups who speak different dialects. Nevertheless, Indonesia has an official language that spoken by the people as its national language. Indonesian has been recognised as the largest Islam believers in the world, however the country is not officially an Islamic state, as Christian, Buddhist, Toaist, Hindu, and many more religions are well flourished as the minority. The people are rich in cultures inherited from their own ancestral and influenced by various foreign cultures during ancient times.
Indonesia is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. The House of Representatives and the President is elected directly by the people.
Jakarta is the country’s capital is located on the northern part of the island of Java. It is the most populous city in the country as well as being among the most populous cities of the world, with a core population of over ten million.
The National State symbol is called the Garuda Panca Sila (The Garuda mythical Bird with a pendant of the five principals as philosophy of life of the nation), holding a state motto, “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” which means “Unity In Diversity”. The national anthem is “Indonesia Raya” (Great Indonesia).The State Palace, Istana Merdeka-Jakarta
Indonesia also has three national flowers declared in 1993, which are the white jasmin (jasminum sambac) as the flower of the nation; moon orchid (phalaenopsis amabilis) as the charm of the nation; and the giant flower (Rafflesia arnoldii) as the pride of the nation.
Indonesian history includes a long period of time that started in prehistoric times by the discovery of “Java Man” 1.7 million years ago. The period of Indonesian history can be divided into five eras: pre-colonial era, the rise of kingdoms and Islamic Hindu-Buddhist Java and Sumatra which mainly relies on trade; Colonial era, the influx of Europeans (mainly Dutch) who want spice lead to colonization by the Dutch for about 3.5 centuries between the early 17th century to the mid 20th century; Early Independence era, the post-Proclamation of Indonesian Independence (1945) until the fall of Sukarno (1966); New Order era, the 32-year reign of Suharto (1966-1998); and the Reform Era, which is from 1998-present.
LIST OF THE PRESIDENTS & VICE PRESIDENTS
Soekarno – Mohammad Hatta, 1945 – 1948
Syarifudin Prawiranagara – None, 1948 – 1949
Soekarno – Mohammad Hatta, 1949 – 1949
Assaat – None (Acting President), 1949 – 1949
Soekarno – Mohammad Hatta, 1950 – 1967
Soeharto – None, 1967 – 1973
Soeharto – Hamengkubuono IX , 1973 – 1978
Soeharto – Adam Malik, 1978 – 1983
Soeharto – Umar Wirahadikusumah, 1983 – 1988
Soeharto – Soedharmono, 1988 – 1993
Soeharto – Try Sutrisno, 1993 – 1998
Soeharto – Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie, 1998 – 1998
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie – None, 1998 – 1999
Abdurrahman Wahid – Megawati Soekarnoputri, 1999 – 2001
Megawati Soekarnoputri – Hamzah Haz, 2001 – 2004
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono – Muhammad Jusuf Kalla, 2004 – 2009
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono – Budiono, 2009 – 2014
Joko Widodo – Muhammad Jusuf Kalla, 2014 – at present